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Q. How do Hi-Rate Sand Filters work?

A. Hi-Rate Sand Filters: Principles of Operation

The Hi-Rate permanent media pressure filter operates at rates seven to ten times higher than conventional rapid rate sand filters.

Operation Diagram
The drawing above shows diagrammatically the Hi-Rate permanent media filter.

The scientifically designed, hydraulically balanced flow design of our Hi-Rate Permanent Media Filters reduces water turbulence to very low limits; thus, flow paths at the media surface are almost wholly parallel and vertical. It is observed that flow rates in excess of 20 gpm per square foot of filter area can be employed in the Hi-Rate filters without displacing media or causing channeling which occurs in conventional rapid rate sand filters.

In the Hi-Rate Permanent Media Filters, collected solids are forced deep into the media which enables much of the bed volume to be used to store the collected solids. This gives the filter a large particulate capacity, in a relatively small volume of space. Therefore, Hi-Rate Permanent Media Filters are cost-effective choices for new swimming pool construction and pool renovation.

Our under drain system creates strong agitation in the working media during backwash. Media grains are rubbed together to release solids and circulation patterns are established to progressively cause each particle of the media to rise to the surface at least once every minute during the backwash cycle.

The balanced-flow conditions induced by our backwash cycle is equal to that of the settling rate of the media grain thereby preventing media loss while ensuring good cleaning. Bed expansion is approximately 6 inches at backwash rates of 15 gpm per square foot of filter area. Complete fluidization of the media allows collected solids to be discharged during the first 90 seconds of backwash. The recommended backwash period is between two and four minutes to ensure complete removal of collected solids.

Q. How should I take care of my stainless steel?


Stainless steel is composed mainly of iron and a chromium nickel alloy. The corrosion resistance of the product is due to the chromium oxide coating on the surface of the steel.

The most destructive agents in swimming pools are halogen salts (chlorine and bromine in particular). Unfortunately, these chemicals are often necessary for sanitation and are constantly being added to the pool. Heat, humidity and halogen salts combine in the air and pool water to form a highly corrosive triad that relentlessly attacks your equipment.

When pool water is splashed onto equipment, warm air encourages the evaporation of the water, leaving behind halogen salts on the surface of the equipment. These salts attack the rust-resistant nickel and chromium alloy in your stainless steel equipment. This already destructive residue becomes even more destructive when coupled with high humidity inside the pool area. Therefore, pool personnel should rinse equipment frequently with fresh water.

NEVER use pool water to rinse stainless steel equipment.

Stray currents from improperly grounded equipment pose another threat to the longevity of pool equipment. These currents can destroy the passive oxide film that is otherwise present on the surface of the steel, neutralizing its effectiveness. This process, known as electrolysis, can be avoided by making certain that dissimilar metals are not in contact with one another at the time of installation.

It is also possible for the surface of stainless steel equipment such as guard chairs, filter tanks, pool divider bulkheads and perimeter overflow gutter systems to appear to be rusting even if the stainless steel itself has not yet been affected. Contaminants can be left on the surface of the stainless steel during the normal production process. Wire brushes, grinding wheels and even sandblasting sand may leave tiny bits of iron behind. When exposed to swimming pool conditions, these stray particles may begin to rust, leaving pool operators with the impression that the stainless steel is rusting.

You can significantly increase the longevity of your stainless steel by following a few simple maintenance procedures on a regular basis.

  1. Make certain that new equipment is properly grounded as it is installed. Assure that dissimilar metals are not in direct contact with one another. This precaution will minimize the risk of forming an electrolytic cell between equipment, the pool water and the atmosphere.
  2. At the time the equipment is installed, apply a generous coating of soft paste automotive wax, and buff. The automotive wax forms a fairly effective barrier between the stainless steel and the halogen salts left by evaporating pool water. The wax should be reapplied no less than every six months. Another product available for this work is aerosol Boeshield T-9, available through swimming pool supply houses or PMS Products, Inc. and should be applied as needed.
  3. Wash your equipment frequently with fresh water. It is important that pool water not be used, as the halogen salt residue left on the surface will attack the stainless steel.
  4. Check your stainless steel equipment for any blemishes of any kind on a regular basis. If discovered, take the appropriate steps to remove corrosion immediately.

Q. How can I restore my stainless steel product?

A. Depending on the type of corrosion you have, please follow these steps.

  1. Stage I Corrosion may include water stains, tarnish or discoloration of any kind. If discovered, the area should be cleaned immediately with a NON-CHLORINATED stainless steel cleaner such as Boeshield Rust Off, Bon Ami, Ajax, or BKF. Rust Off is available through pool supply houses or PMS Products, Inc. Bon Ami, Ajax, and BKF are available at many local hardware stores. NEVER USE STEEL WOOL OR HARSH ABRASIVE CLEANERS. Steel wool can contaminate the surface of the stainless steel and accelerate corrosion. Rinse the area with fresh water and dry with a clean, soft cloth. Do not use pool water to rinse equipment.
  2. Stage II Corrosion will be noticed by Pool Operators as overt rusting on the surface of the equipment, although no pitting of the metal is apparent. The cleansers recommended above will most probably not be effective at this more advanced stage of corrosion. You may find a 3M scratch pad, in conjunction with a chemical cleanser useful at this stage. The scratch pad must always be used in the same direction as the existing grain.
  3. Stage III Corrosion will occur if tarnish and light rusting are not diligently removed on a regular basis. Stage 3 consists of a deep coat of rust, coupled with light pitting on the surface of the steel.
  4. Stage IV Corrosion is present if you can detect scratches or deep pits. At this point, chemicals will not remedy your problem. Instead, consider polishing the steel. Work only in the direction of the existing grain. Scotch-Brite pads #7446 by 3M, are specifically designed for hand blending surface scratches on metal and are ideal for this work.

Note: Whenever you have treated stainless steel for corrosion at any stage, be certain that you reapply a coat of automotive wax, or Boeshield T-9 to provide a barrier between your equipment and halogen salt residue.

Q. How often do I replace sacrificial anodes?


Each tank is equipped with one or more sacrificial magnesium anodes which help extend the life and usefulness of your filter(s). The anode(s) is installed through the top of the tank, but is designed to be serviced and inspected from the outside.

It is essential that the sacrificial anodes are inspected no less often than once every six months. If the anode's diameter has increased, or if its surface has a honeycomb-like texture, or if it appears to have been eaten away, the anodes must be replaced. Failure to conduct regular inspection and replacement shall be considered abuse under the terms of the warranty agreement.


Before inspecting the anode, the pump must be turned off. You must check your system to ensure that there is no pressure in the tank. Relieve the pressure through your automatic air relief vent, or through manual bleeders. Then, check your pressure gauges to ensure that there is no pressure in the tank before proceeding.

If you fail to follow these safety precautions, the anode could be forced up and out of the tank due to the pressure within the system, like a champagne cork popping from its bottle. This could result in disabling or fatal injuries.

Special note: Saltwater users must check the tank's anodes no less often than once every three months. Saltwater affects the system differently than standard swimming pool water does, and subsequently, the anodes must be inspected more often.

Q. What is the correct procedure for making single lever linkage adjustments?

A. Procedure for Adjusting Linkage

Linkage Diagram

  1. All butterfly valves supplied with the system have a slot on the end of the stem or shaft indicating the position of the disc.
  2. To adjust linkage, remove the respective clevis bearing, bolt and nut. Place the indicator mark in desired position. Loosen the respective jam nut. The linkage rod may now be extended or retracted into the adjustment coupling to the necessary length.
  3. Replace the bearing, bolt and nut.
  4. The assembly is now ready for operation.